What is Filler?
Filler materials are those particles can be added to resin or binders (plastics, composites, or concrete) to enhance certain properties, reduce overall cost, or achieve a combination of the two. The two industries that use filler materials the most are elastomers and plastics. An estimated US$18 billion worth of fillers are used annually in products including paper, plastic, rubber, paint, varnish, adhesives, and sealants, totaling over 53 million tonnes. As a result, fillers, produced by more than 700 companies, are one of the main raw materials utilized internationally and are included in a range of regularly used consumer goods. Talc, kaolin, precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), carbon black, and crushed calcium carbonate are the fillers that are most frequently utilized (GCC).
Filler components may have an effect on a material's tensile strength, toughness, heat resistance, color, clarity, and other qualities. The addition of talc to polypropylene is a good example of this. Most of the filler components used in plastics have a mineral or glass base. Particles and fibres are the two most significant subcategories of filler materials. Size and aspect ratio are important factors in a matrix that blends tiny filler particles known as particles. Fibres are little, circular threads that can be quite long and have large aspect ratios.
Frequently, filler is used in the production of plastic goods. Filler modifies the qualities of the original plastic. By using plastic filler, manufacturers may lower production costs and raw material costs.
No one can dispute the importance of filler masterbatch in improving the physical properties of plastics, especially in reducing costs and boosting production efficiency. Plastic filler, which has the benefits of low cost and stability, aids in the production of:
Blown Film & Lamination
Extrusion (Sheet, Pipe)
Types of Fillers
There are mainly 4 types of Fillers:
Calcium Carbonate Filler
This type of plastic filler must be well-known to all plastic manufacturers. Calcium carbonate filler is one of the most often used fillers for plastic as a result. Natural shells of living animals, such as those of eggs, seashells, and pearls, are mostly made of this material. Additionally, the most well-liked calcium carbonate sources include marble, limestone ores, and quarries. Although calcium carbonate has a potential negative effect on overall strength, it positively affects density and tensile modulus. It also improves impact resistance, provides opacity and surface gloss, acts as a processing aid, and adds gloss, all of which speed up the production process.
One of calcium carbonate filler's most prominent advantages is its capacity to help plastic producers reduce total manufacturing costs. Since calcium carbonate is unaffected by variations in the price of oil and natural gas, it is both much more stable and more economical than main plastic. Additionally, because of its widespread availability and simplicity of production, this material has a substantial advantage over traditional plastic.
The softest mineral on the market is talc, also known as hydrated magnesium silicate. It has the chemical composition Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. Talc is first primarily added to polypropylene to improve stiffness. However, talc usage has greatly improved during the past ten years. In polyethylene and polyamides, it is also used. Plastic items are more stable, robust, and thermally resistant as a result of this substance. Additionally, talc is more affordable than main plastic. Additionally, it may be used for the majority of conventional production techniques, such as bag blowing, injection moulding, extrusion moulding, compression moulding, etc., with no special production technology or equipment needed.
It is widely combined with polypropylene to replace different metal components in automotive applications such as bumpers, internal plastic ducting, and fasciae. This component is also used in household appliances and engineered plastic hardware. To make it easier to separate the two faces of a plastic bag, talc is commonly added in polyethylene films as an anti-block component.
Barium Sulfate Filler
Barium sulphate is an odorless, water-insoluble inorganic compound. It is widely used as a plastic filler to increase the density of the polymer in applications involving vibration mass damping. Up to 70% of polypropylene and polystyrene plastics include it as filler. Enhancing opacity and acid and alkali resistance are the results. Such composites are also used as X-Ray shielding materials because of their enhanced radiopacity. Performance-wise, composites with a high weight percentage of barium sulphate (70–80%) outperform commonly used steel shields.
Sodium Sulfate Filler
The inorganic chemical sodium sulphate, often known as sodium sulphate or sulphate of soda has the formula Na2SO4. This substance is tasteless, odorless, non-toxic, and extremely soluble in water. The clarity of sodium sulphate (which is clearer than calcium carbonate) and its affordable pricing are only two of its many advantages (cheaper than barium sulfate). As a result, sodium sulphate is common and efficient plastic filler.
Consequently, sodium sulphate greatly enhances the clarity and gloss of plastic goods. Additionally, it strengthens the mechanical qualities of the finished product with outstanding dispersion, high tenacity, and strong stability. Furthermore, sodium sulphate is an excellent choice for plastic filler since it contains eco-friendly ingredients that hardly harm the environment.
Benefits of Filler
High specific strength due to low density
Enhances the toughness of the product
It boosts heat resistance and increase quality of color
It makes the product cheaper and affordable
It can improve plastic moldability
Gives immediate and visible results